Ice Axe Guide

Everything you need to know about choosing an all-round ice axe by Paul Lewis.

Posted: 6 January 2010
by Paul Lewis

The Lord of the Swings – choosing one axe to rule them all - everything you need to know about choosing a general-purpose ice axe this winter by Winter Mountain Leader, Paul Lewis.

Adore Your Tool

I love my ice axe.  I know its weird and I should just say that I don’t mean love in the cuddle up on the sofa with it and watch a good DVD with a bottle of chilled Chardonnay kind of way. 

But I do love it in a faithful companion who’s shared some great adventures and is always there for me kind of way – and yes, I know that’s still weird.  But hey, if you’re feeling a bit jealous about my metal and I, don’t despair – just read these top tips and you’ll find your perfect match too!

Axe Head

Whilst forged one piece axe heads are the bee’s knees, nowadays they are unfortunately becoming harder to find than the ozone layer!  The new trend is for axe heads made from stamped metal.  These will do their job just fine but make sure the head is durable enough and has enough weight in it for an effective swing. For general mountain use you should also ensure it’s made of steel rather than the alloy ones which are designed for specialist things like ultra-lightweight ski touring and ascending 8000ers.  

axe head

The axe pick should be gently curved to allow it to grip in snow but not too curved or it will snatch in fall arrest situations.   Some axe picks have teeth that are just placed in the first few inches of the underside of the pick whilst some go all the way up to where the pick meets the top of the shaft. 

My experience of using a variety of axes has shown me it is better not to have teeth all the way up as this doesn’t greatly improve its holding power and can also make the axe uncomfortable to hold - and those teeth can really chew up your gloves.   

The curve from the pick should then continue smoothly over the head of the axe which will make it comfortable to grip.  When you go into the shops its worth taking some gloves and trying holding lots of models – on big mountain days you’ll be carrying your axe for a long time in this position and if its shape starts hurting your hand you’ll be more likely to put it away and not have it available when you really need it.

The adze just needs to be of a good cutting size, slightly scooped and not too steeply angled.  The pick and adze don’t need to be too sharp for what you want this axe to do, so either let them blunt up a bit with use or smooth the sharp bits a little with a hand file – Gore-Tex and sharp don’t mix!   

Size Does Matter

If you Google 'ice axe length' you’ll be faced with lots of opinions on the best length for your tool.  Old school thinking always said that your axe should be two inches off the floor when you held the head in your hand and stood with your arm down by your side.  The trouble with this is that it makes you axe hard to use for anything other than as a walking stick.

In my opinion it’s best to choose an axe of about 55cm (about the same length as a technical climbing tool) regardless of your height.  This length will allow efficient ice axe braking, cut steps, perform axe belays, provide good support on steep ground, swing efficiently when climbing and store easily on you sack.  

Get A Grip

In ye olde alpenstock day’s wood ruled for axe shaft construction and it’s certainly true that Sylvester Stallone managed some wicked manoeuvres with a wooden axe in Cliffhanger.  The trouble is that wood is unpredictable and has been known to fail without warning and Cliffhanger was only made up (I know that’s hard to believe!) – alloy is the modern way to go. 

Oval alloy tubing is strong, provides a good shape for your hand to grip and is dependable in use.  A simple but solid spike at the bottom of the shaft will allow you to plunge the axe easily into snow.

ice axe grip 

Some form of rubber grip on the lower part of the shaft will aid hold-on-ability and insulate your pinkies, but try to avoid axes where the grip material is too raised from the shaft as it will wear quickly and get in the way when you are plunging your shaft into snow.

Some models come without any shaft grip but you can make your own using some climbing finger tape or, even better, some purpose made strips of the super grippy adhesive sandpaper material sold by Grivel.  It’s expensive for what it is but works brilliantly and lasts well – or try getting some skateboard deck covering material from your local board shop.  This is essentially the same thing but a lot cheaper.

Axe Rating  

Axe shafts and picks are rated by the criteria of UIAA standard 152 (which in turn are based on EN standard 13089). It’s worth noting that the UIAA standard 152 has additional requirements to the EN standard on which it is based.  That all sounds pretty heavy and you have probably dozed off - but if you do like that type of techno babble all the technical testing standards can be found on the UIAA website.

Really the essential facts you need to know are that axes and picks are given either a B (basic) or T (technical) rating. B rated axes are lower strength and are designed for use in general circumstances such as snow mountaineering, glacier travel and ski mountaineering. 

Components that are T rated have passed the most stringent tests and are designed to cope in all circumstances including such high stress activities as ice climbing and dry tooling.  The rating will be shown by either a B or T in a circle on the shaft and pick of the axe.


Colour is very important.  At all costs make sure your axe colour matches the colour of your Gore-Tex.  Its such bad form to clash in the couloir ... only joking on this one of course! [You might be... ed.]


Ice axes are now available that only weigh 2 nanograms and have helium filled shafts (maybe!).  The problem with today’s obsession with lightness is that a general-purpose axe needs some weight to allow a good swing for efficient step cutting and good penetration in hard ice. 

Axes also take a lot of abuse and ultralight materials just aren’t going to be as durable for long term mountain use.  Despite the desire to get your total pack weight down to 600grams this is one area where you need some clout.


Ice axe leashes are good for providing support when step cutting and preventing you dropping your axe.  They are bad for zig-zagging up a slope where you need to change hands regularly.  The answer is a simple leash that can be detached from the axe easily when not needed. 

The easiest solution is a simple slider closure style tape leash that can be larks footed through the hole at the top of your axe head.  Even better if it’s compact enough to carry in your jacket pocket as this will mean you always have it to hand when needed. 

If you do decide to have it permanently attached to your axe don’t leave it dangling down as that’s a sure fire way to snag it in crampon points just when you really don’t want to.  One way to keep things neat if you leave it attached is to wrap the tape several times around the axe pick and trap it in place with your hand.

Carrying And Storage

You’ve found your trusty partner.  It’s a marriage made in heaven.  Well now you need to treat that puppy with respect – and luckily axes don’t take much caring for.  Just make sure its dry before storage and don’t store it in a damp place because rust will develop quickly. 

Grivel Axe Guard

If you use those little rubber pick and spike protectors make sure they are removed for storage as it’s easy to trap moisture underneath. Apart from that just periodically give your axe a once over looking for signs of metal fatigue, excessive wear and any damage to the rivets that connect everything together – job done.

The best way to carry your axe is to place it vertically (axe head at the top!) down the side compression straps on your rucksack and ignore the fiddly carrying system sewn onto the sac by the manufacturers.  These leave all sorts of sharp metal bits pointing up at partner gouging level and also make it likely that things will get caught on all the spiky bits. 

I witnessed a very messy ice axe spike meets face incident on the Aiguille de Midi Telepherique a couple of years ago which certainly showed the damage that can be done. Storing your axe in the compression straps also makes it quick to deploy, but if you need your tool to hand more quickly just slide it between your back and the back of your rucksack with the axe tip exiting above the lower strap attachment point in a Robin Hoods arrows stylee.

Of course, the very best way to really look the part is to always have your axe in your hand when you really need it.

Take Your Pick

So you know what to look for but which axe do you choose?  Fortunately, like most modern kit, there are very few bad axes out there if you select one from a reputable manufacturer.  The important thing to decide is what you are going to be using the axe for and whether you are in the ‘light is right’ brigade or whether you want something so well constructed you can pass it on to your grandchildren.  It also obviously depends how much you want to spend!

Here are few of my current favourites to point you in the right direction.  

The Petzl Cosmique is a very sturdy T-rated forged head axe with a well-shaped adze and durable rubber shaft grip.  At around 650 grams (depending on length) its not particularly light, but it feels beautifully weighted and will power easily into even the hardest snow and ice.  At about £90 it isn’t particularly cheap but it's so well made it will probably be the only one you will ever buy.

Petzl Cosmique

Petzl also do a lighter version of the Petzl Cosmique called, you guessed it, the Petzl Cosmique Light!  This is about 100 grams lighter, about £15 cheaper but is B-rated and has no shaft grip.  Another excellent axe.

Petzl Cosmique Light

I haven’t used the Grivel Brenva but it has a good feel in the hand and has all the features you would want.  It has apparently been designed with the Scottish mountaineer in mind and has a slight curve to the shaft to aid self-arrest. It is t-rated, has a forged head and weighs around 480 grams (without the leash that comes with it).  The Brenva costs around £80 and in my experience you won’t go far wrong with anything made by Grivel.

Grivel Brenva

The Grivel Munro is a real bargain at about £40. A simple stripped down design and fairly light at around 470 grams (including leash) for the 55cm model.  The Munro is B-rated, has no shaft grip and the head is drop forged steel.

Black Diamond’s Raven is a great axe that looks very cool and well made – typical BD really.  Fortunately, its performance matches its looks!  The head is made from investment cast stainless steel and it sits very comfortably in the hand.  There are four versions available but the Raven and Raven Grip are the best general purpose choices. 

Black Diamond Raven

The Raven weighs in at about 485 grams but has no shaft grip whereas the Raven Grip is the same tool with a smart grip and weighing about 570 grams. They cost about £65 and £70 respectively and both come with a slider leash.

Try Them Out...

So there are a few options out of the many models available.  The best thing to do is call into your local gear shop and try some out for yourself.  By swinging them and seeing how they feel in your hand you will soon get an idea which feels best for you.  Just remember not to rush into a decision – in the words of Phil Collins…. you can’t hurry love!       

Please bear in mind that this article is written for mountaineers choosing a general purpose axe for hillwalking and easy gully climbing.  Obviously this information is only my opinion and if you choose to follow it you do so entirely at your own risk.  If you are in any doubt of the techniques or issues described please check before you do anything dangerous.

About the author: Paul Lewis is is the owner of Peak Mountaineering and a Winter Mountain Leader. Peak Mountaineering offers a full range of winter courses and full details can be found at Here's his comprehensive take on crampon selection, use, maintenance and more.

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Discuss this story

Ah, the old "You need a stout weighty axe to cut steps" argument. What about that wonderful modern invention crampons, which largely remove the need? How many people actually ever cut more than a couple of steps these days -- I don't.

Posted: 07/01/2010 at 11:33

I dont .

Posted: 11/01/2010 at 20:33

I've never cut steps, never seen anyone cut steps, never seen evidence of steps having been cut.

but who am I to argue with the guys at ?

Posted: 11/01/2010 at 20:42

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